Automation of Water Production
Why the Modernization of Water Production Plants is Necessary
Being of different size and specific gravity, they naturally settle at different rates, so the quality of the sludge depends critically on the water chemistry. The sludge is removed from the base with scarpers for treatment and re-use. The tanks may be circular or square, with the inlet usually in the center and the launder round the periphery.
Circular tanks are the most common and large plants can have several of these depending on the plant influent. Care must be taken to ensure the flow to each tank is identical. The clarifier is usually sized to give a retention time between 2-5 hours.
Filter Design for Water Cleaning
Once the water has been pre-treated and cleaned it is filtered, to reduce the turbidity and remove the very fine particle that may not settle. In most plants sand filter beds are used and these may be open or closed. The sand is periodically backwashed to remove the collected sediment. The flocs gather in the top layers of these filters so the lower parts of the bed remained clean. The main parameter measured here is the turbidity, as this directly shows the quality of the entire process thus far. A typical value is 1 NTU (or less) for the polished water.
Disinfection – Messy, but Necessary
The final process prior to distribution is disinfection. The purpose is to kill living organisms so that the water becomes fully potable. There have been many reported instances where polluted water has caused major health problems and the water supply company is almost always legally obliged to produce water of well-defined standard quality. In order to ensure this requirement is met, instrumentation has to be used to measure the chemistry of the finished waters.
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