Automation of Water Production
Why the Modernization of Water Production Plants is Necessary
This is merely simple settling of the heavy particulate matter and the collection of any precipitants from the chemicals addition. The secondary clarification is in the form of filtration and here the size of the filter determines the water quality. Finally the water is disinfected so that water-borne organisms, which pass through the filters, are killed. Again a variety of techniques are used in disinfection. The water then passes into storage tanks and from there into supply.
How to Optimise the Deign of Water Plants
The whole design process includes flow rate calculations, requirements for the size, number and shape of the various plant components, the general plant layout considerations, hydraulic levels within each unit and the correct sizing of pipes, pumps and instruments to ensure an optimized design and minimized power and energy loss.
In Fig 1, water from a river is blended with groundwater. This latter source may be contaminated or brackish and water blending ensures a more efficient process. In the mixing tanks a variety of chemicals can be added.
These may include alum, milk of lime, colloidal precipitants, acids or alkalis for pH balance or specialty chemicals for toxin removal. Following pre-treatment, the raw water passes through a number of processes aimed at reducing turbidity to around 1NTU. Instrumentation designed for this purpose is well accepted and has shown the benefits of automation in water production. Various disinfection methods have been tried and new methods are under testing.
Alternatives for Water Treatment with Chlorine
It is now recognized that chlorine, although effective, is becoming environmentally unacceptable to kill bacteria and other organisms harmful to health. Indeed many plants in third world countries either over-chlorinate (thereby damaging plant equipment) or underchlorinate resulting in health problems and higher mortality rates particularly with children, the sick and the weak. Proper plant control is therefore urgently required in many places.
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