Simultion for API Production
Boost Your API Production with Numerical Simulation – From Batch to Continous Processing
Direct Element Modeling (DEM)
Casestudy 1: DEM simulates the motion of a large number of interacting particles and tracks them in a numerically efficient manner, modeling contact forces and energy transfer due to collision and heat transfer between particles. DEM will be particularly important in the design and optimization of continuous coating processes to help identify the important factors for equipment design (e.g. number of spray guns) and to determine optimal equipment operation conditions (e.g. inlet temperature).
Figures 1 and 2 show Star-CCM+ generated solutions for two types of equipment currently used for real-world tablet coating: coating pan (rotating drum) and fluidized bed. In these simulations, DEM is used to analyze the random movement of the particles as layers of coating are applied. Parameters such as particle velocities, residence time and coating thickness are tracked to assess and improve tablet coating uniformity. In addition to tablet coating, DEM can also be used to simulate other steps in manufacturing such as filling, filtering and conveyer processes.
Eulerian Multiphase (EMP)
Casestudy 2: EMP modeling provides an effective means for studying the interacting streams and randomly dispersed phases in multiphase flows. The EMP model in Star-CCM+ includes an extensive range of sub-models including break-up and coalescence models for bubbles and droplets and a granular flow model for particles. This is demonstated by an EMP simulation of a gas-liquid mixer with three rotating impellers. In figure 3 are shown the effects of increasing gas injection rates on gas.
The ability to predict gas hold-up, a parameter that governs mass transfer across the phases and consequently rates of reaction, is a key enabler in the design of such reactors. This approach adds valuable scientific insight into the decision-making criteria to develop practical solutions for mixing and other processes in continuous manufacturing.